The Endocannabinoid System’s Role in Homeostasis
Discovered in the 1990s by Dr. L.A. Matsuda, every animal has a complex network of cannabinoid receptors (CBr) expressed in cells of both the central and peripheral nervous system called the endocannabinoid system (ECS).
The body naturally produces its own (endo)cannabinoids (eCB) which stimulate the CB1 and CB2 receptors. CB1 receptors are primarily found on nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord but can also be observed in some peripheral organs (reproductive organs, lungs, vascular system, etc) and tissues while CB2 receptors are mainly found on white blood cells, bones, and spleen. Immune cells, the liver, and pancreas also have both CB1 & CB2 receptors in varying amounts. The CB1 & CB2 receptors play a role in modulating these systems in the body, contributing to the maintenance of homeostasis within each system specifically, and within the body generally.
The body’s endocannabinoids bind with the CB1 & CB2 receptors and their work can be supplemented with phytocannabinoids. There are more than 80 Phytocannabinoids found in hemp (THC, THCa, THCv, CBD, CBDa, CBN, CBG, etc), some phytocannabinoids can bind with CB1 and/or CB2 receptors, and some phytocannabinoids bind with neither – like Cannabidiol (CBD). While some phytocannabinoids do not bind with receptors in the same way as eCBs, they instead “stick” to the receptors and modify the ability of the receptor to bind.
The most well-understood receptors are the CB1 & CB2 receptors, though there are additional receptors in the ECS which can also be stimulated by both cannabinoids and terpenes. Terpenes are the molecular compounds in plants that result in the smell and taste of a plant (they make some plants smell nice to attract bees and other plants smell like rotten meat to keep predators away, for example).
The hemp plant is composed of more than just CBD and THC, it also includes over 400 trace compounds, including terpenes. When products are made starting with whole-plant extractions and include these supporting compounds in the finished product they can create a synergistic effect that magnifies the therapeutic benefits of the final products. This “Entourage Effect” is one of the reasons products made from whole-plant extracts have a greater medicinal value than single-molecule products synthesized for laboratory research.
CBD products which include Terpenes can provide benefits often lacking in “CBD-only” products.
When the CBr in the ECS are stimulated they act as neuromodulators for a variety of processes, including motor learning, appetite, and pain sensation, among other cognitive and physical processes. This system works together to keep your body in homeostasis – a balanced internal state needed for optimal health.
Effects Associated with Stimulation of Cannabinoid Receptors:
|Sleep Schedule||Pain Perception|
Cannabidiol (CBD) Product Types:
CBD products come in two categories based on their ingredients:
|Composed of a variety of cannabinoids and other compounds found in hemp plants (but no THC).||Like the broad-spectrum products these are made with a combination of several cannabinoids and other compounds found in hemp, but also with up to 0.3% THC|
Of these two categories, you can find products in several forms:
|Product Type||Examples||Differences in effects|
|Topical||Gels, Creams, Lotions||For location-specific effects, available in a variety of strengths.|
|Sublingual||Oil drops placed under the tongue||Take effect relatively quickly.|
|Ingestible – Food||Baked goods, gummies, chocolate||Slower start for effects to be felt, but longer-lasting effects|
|Ingestible – Drink||Infused Coffee & Tea||Coffee that’s easy to incorporate in to a morning wake-up routine and tea for evening wind-down routines.|
|Capsule||Capsules containing CBD oil||Convenient way to maintain a steady CBD intake regiment./td>|
Why use CBD products?
CBD products supplement the endocannabinoids produced naturally by your body, providing additional stimulation to the CBr within your Endocannabinoid system. Emerging research continues to reinforce the positive relationship between your ECS and the overall homeostasis of your body, including physical, mental, and emotional health.
Using CBD products – and which products you use – is a personal decision and reasoning may vary from individual to individual. One person might use it for the positive effect it has on one particular aspect of their health, while others are looking to improve their overall well-being.
Discuss your reasons for considering CBD products with our employees so they can help you choose the products and dosage most likely to help you see the results that are important to you.
Q: Can CBD products get me high?
A: No. The ingredient that creates the “high” of marijana is THC. Broad-Spectrum products have no THC while Full-Spectrum products are limited to 0.3% THC (the federally-mandated limit) which is not enough to cause a “high”
Q: Is CBD Legal?
A: The 2018 Farm Bill officially classified hemp with less than 0.3% THC as an approved agricultural crop and removed hemp-derived products with less than 0.3% THC from the government’s Schedule 1 status. So at the federal level, hemp-derived CBD is legal. However, each state has the right to create its own laws and regulations, so it’s best to research the specific laws of any state in which you intend to buy or sell CBD products.
Q: Can I overdose on CBD?
A: Cannabinoids have no known toxicity, but we recommend starting with a low dosage and increasing incrementally until you experience your desired results.
Some effects of cannabis preparations are caused by the actions of cannabinoids other than THC. For instance, cannabidiol (CBD)—after THC, the cannabinoid that occurs in the highest concentration in many strains of cannabis—possesses antiemetic, neuroprotective, and anti-inflammatory properties. CBD’s complex mechanisms of effect include an antagonistic action on the CB1 receptor, stimulation of the vanilloid-1 receptor, inhibition of the hydrolysis of anandamide (10), and activation of the nuclear receptor PPAR-gamma.
Conclusion: There is now clear evidence that cannabinoids are useful for the treatment of various medical conditions.
Endocannabinoid system localization by CNS cell type. Drugs acting upon cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoid-regulating enzymes are determined not only by drug class, efficacy, affinity, and potency, but also by cellular compartmentalization of the drug target. However, as CBD does not bind cannabinoid receptors, this review will not discuss this phytocannabinoid at length.
Enzymatic regulation of endocannabinoids and primary targets. However, as CBD does not bind cannabinoid receptors, this review will not discuss this phytocannabinoid at length.
Administration of CBD, or its synthetic analogs, attenuates clinical signs of arthritis and joint damage, while having an immunosuppressant effect in CIA
From the Abstract: “The plethora of positive pharmacological effects observed with CBD make this compound a highly attractive therapeutic entity.”
This study demonstrated that acute administration of CBD, one of the main psychoactive constituents of Cannabis sativa, can reduce subjective anxiety in patients clinically diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, in this case SAD. Furthermore, the present study indicates that this behavioral response is associated with changes in the functional activity of brain areas implicated in the processing of anxiety.
Although CBD does not act by means of the known cannabinoid receptors (CB1 or CB2), the stereospecificity previously observed may indicate that this cannabinoid binds to another type of receptor in the brain (Mechoulam and Hanus, 2002; Zuardi, 2008).
Moreover, experimental evidence has shown that CBD is capable of antagonizing CB1/CB2 receptor agonists at reasonably low concentrations, although it is well known that this compound has low affinity for CB receptors (Thomas et al., 2007). Such findings raise the possibility that this antagonism is noncompetitive in nature, a hypothesis that was recently put forward (Pertwee, 2008). It is possible that the anxiolytic effects of CBD could be due to the action of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide in the brain.
In conclusion, our results support the notion that CBD has anxiolytic effects that are associated with an action on limbic and paralimbic areas of the brain. This suggests a potential usefulness of CBD in ameliorating symptoms of clinically significant anxiety.
More recently, the synergistic contributions of cannabidiol to cannabis pharmacology and analgesia have been scientifically demonstrated. Other phytocannabinoids, including tetrahydrocannabivarin, cannabigerol and cannabichromene, exert additional effects of therapeutic interest.
“The endocannabinoid system has been recently recognized as an important modulatory system in the function of brain, endocrine, and immune tissues.”
“It appears to play a very important regulatory role in the secretion of hormones related to reproductive functions and response to stress.”
“In humans this system also controls energy homeostasis and mainly influences the function of the food intake centers of the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract activity.”
“The endocannabinoid system regulates not only the central and peripheral mechanisms of food intake, but also lipids synthesis and turnover in the liver and adipose tissue as well as glucose metabolism in muscle cells.”